Anderson, Nathan C.; Conn, Daniel R.; Gamas, Kylie C.; Borkhuis, Brad; and Lantto, Jonah J. (2018) Capacity, Passion, Relevance, and Presence: A Conceptual Framework for the Interpretation and Study of Success. Journal of Research Initiatives, 4 (1).
Abstract: This project outlined a conceptual framework to help make sense of opportunities in an effort to recognize conditions leading to failure and to establish paths toward success. In finding success, three distinct themes emerged from the literature: capacity, passion, and relevance. The CPR Success and Failure Analysis framework is intended to be a framework for success. Displayed as a Venn diagram, the framework includes domains of capacity, passion, and relevance, which are connected in the center through presence. The framework may serve as a theoretical lens for research, in-person and online educational opportunities, self-reflection, business coaching/consulting, college and career planning, and various other purposes. Given that a variety of circumstances could be applied to this framework, the possibilities for its use seem endless.
2. Baxter, K. (2019). Creating Vibrant Art Lesson Plans: A Teacher's Sketchbook. Teachers College Press.
Abstract: Writing lesson plans is often considered busywork, but it can be a useful path for discovering what’s important about artmaking and teaching. This book shows teachers how to slow down, breathe, and linger over the process of unit and lesson plan writing to uncover how much this process can support them professionally, creatively, and personally. The user-friendly text offers guidance for selecting an art project for the unit and then zooms into the nitty-gritty of specific lesson plans, including how to identify materials for a project and how to construct classroom dialogue to help students develop ideas for their artwork. The text also considers standards, assessments, and extensions to other subject areas. Featuring accessible language, clear definitions, practical examples, and self-reflection prompts, this unique resource will help pre- and inservice teachers create lesson plans that are useful to their specific contexts and methods of teaching.
3. Colley, K. M. (2015). Cultivating creativity: The practice of teaching for creativity in the elementary classroom. University of Denver, ProQuest Information & Learning. AAI3715353.
Abstract: Limited resources in public education and a focus on the “basics” have resulted in a narrowing of the curriculum, which, in turn, has led to a dramatically minimized role for the arts and creativity (Mishook & Kornhaber, 2006). Our world and the ways in which we access and share knowledge continue to evolve at an alarming rate. With this, complex issues arise- issues that will need fresh, innovative eyes that can cultivate creative solutions. The success of our society is fueled by creative and flexible minds that can generate innovative and authentic solutions to some of our most complex problems (Craft, 2003; Parkhurst, 1999; Pink, 2005; Robinson, 2011). Through this study, I hope to reveal that today’s teachers, even with the many constraints and limitations they face, can still prepare our youth for the diverse world they will inherit by fostering student creativity through their approach to teaching. I propose that even the most mundane standards and learning objectives can be constructed into meaningful learning experiences when our imaginations are included in the conversation (Uhrmacher, Conrad, & Moroye 2013). This study seeks to ignite that conversation.
4. Çolak, E. (2017). Teachers' experiences in a professional learning community on the constructivist lesson planning: A case study among primary school teachers. Egitim Ve Bilim, 42 (190).
Abstract: The purpose of the study is to determine the opinions of teachers about professional learning community (PLC) practices, and examine the change caused by this practice on their constructivist lesson planning skills, constructivist lesson plans (CLP) and constructivism comprehensions. In the research, the professional learning community practice being carried out regarding preparation of constructivist lesson planning in an eight weeks period has been addresses as case study. Four class teachers, serving at the level of primary school, have been determined as the participants of the study. Data has been collected through focus group meetings, metaphors and document review. In the research, the results obtained before and after the practice have been analyzed by descriptive analysis method. The metaphors formed by the teachers have been tabulated, coding has been made for the metaphors and the explanations -relevant to the metaphors formed- have been provided by direct citation. The “Lesson Plan Rubric” has been used in order to assess the lesson plans prepared before and after the practice. As the result of the research, it has emanated that the teachers have positive opinions regarding professional learning community, and that this practice creates a change towards constructivist comprehension in lesson plans. Depending on the obtained results, suggestions have been brought.
5. Hardin, K. A. (2016). Effects of foldables® on teacher instruction (Order No. 10244609). Available From Education Database. (1858817615).
Abstract: Teachers are continuously seeking effective methods for presenting, processing and practicing concepts that they are responsible for teaching. Note taking and graphic organizers, in many forms, are common instructional tools used in the classroom for the delivery of new information. Research suggests that presenting information in a more structured or pictorial form helps students focus on key ideas, easily access information, and stimulate learning. The majority of research on the effects of note taking and graphic organizers has involved the use of traditional outline notes and two-dimensional graphic organizer formats. The specific instructional strategy studied in this research is called a Foldable®, which is a three-dimensional tool that combines note taking and graphic organizer strategies with a kinesthetic integration. An instrumental case study design was used to examine the effects of Foldables® on teachers’ depth of knowledge, planning, and instructional practices. In an effort to closely examine variables, the researcher observed three teacher participants in their classrooms, conducted interviews, reviewed lesson planning data, and collected Foldable® reflections. Using Gagné’s (1985) Conditions of Learning and Bruner’s (1960, 1961) Concept Learning, along with Gagné and Driskoll’s (1988) Learning Outcomes as frameworks, the researcher analyzed the individual teachers’ cases and then conducted a cross-case analysis to identify the effects of Foldables® at the teacher level. Overall, the findings suggest that Foldables® are beneficial to teachers by increasing their depth of knowledge about the standards they are required to teach. Teachers also reported an increased awareness and attention to content-specific vocabulary during their planning process as a result of integrating necessary vocabulary, definitions, and examples into the Foldables® they created. Additionally, Teachers reported feeling more organized during instruction when using Foldables® due to the high level of structure and the breaking down, or task analysis, of standards required when creating Foldables®.
6. Hopkins, L. J. (2018). Planning for reading comprehension instruction with core reading programs: Elementary teachers' processes and plans (Order No. 10932460). Available From Education Database. (2102569113).
Abstract: Reading comprehension instruction in the United States has historically been weak and provided limited support for diverse learners. Though the majority of teachers in the United States use core reading programs to design and teach reading comprehension lessons, virtually nothing is known about how teachers interact with core programs to develop instructional plans. Recognizing the potential of research on this topic for supporting instructional improvement efforts, this study used a qualitative, multiple case study design to examine how six elementary teachers planned reading comprehension lessons with core reading programs. In doing this, it addressed the following research questions: (1) How do teachers interact with core reading program materials when planning whole-group reading comprehension lessons? (2) What do their instructional plans involve, and how do those plans align with a research-derived framework for high-quality, responsive comprehension instruction? To inform the study’s design and analysis, I applied theories from research in science and mathematics that address the curriculum enactment process, including a view of teachers as instructional designers, a participatory view of the teacher-curriculum material relationship, and the construct of curricular noticing. Data sources included semi-structured interviews, staged lesson planning protocols, and the collection of core reading program lessons. To analyze the data, I engaged in inductive and deductive coding and created analytic tables. Findings speak to the participatory and contextual nature of teacher-curriculum material interactions, the influential role of teacher beliefs, and the complexity involved in teachers’ work with core programs. In terms of teachers’ planning processes, I found that teachers engaged in a common set of core planning activities that seemed to support them in making sense of and planning with the core programs. I also found that teachers’ planning processes were guided by planning routines and that their familiarity with the programs and their differing beliefs played a significant role in shaping planning processes and curricular noticing. Similarly, teachers’ instructional plans reflected the use of instructional activity routines and demonstrated the influence of teachers’ beliefs and experiences, core reading program characteristics, and contextual resources and constraints. In terms of quality and responsiveness, teachers’ instructional plans exhibited many strengths and even improved upon the core program lessons in some areas, especially in those requiring knowledge of students, although they also exhibited weaknesses in areas of comprehension instruction important for supporting diverse learners. These findings provide clear evidence that teachers can improve upon core programs in at least some areas and can use them to design instruction that is responsive to their particular students. At the same time, they suggest the importance of continued efforts to support instructional improvement in reading comprehension through teacher education, professional development, policy, and curriculum development. In terms of its contributions, this dissertation demonstrates the applicability of theories and constructs from research in mathematics and science to research in literacy. It also suggests the importance of teachers’ beliefs in shaping all aspects of teachers’ noticing and provides important foundational insights into the nature of teachers’ work with core reading programs that can inform continued research in this area.
7. Jantarach, V., & Soontornwipast, K. (2018). EFL student teachers’ lesson planning processes: A grounded theory study. Arab Society of English Language Studies.
Abstract: Lesson planning employs both pedagogical and content knowledge. The processes are complex and student teachers, undergoing practicum, struggle to plan. However, studies that explain processes drawn from a qualitative inquiry to explain the practice are rare. The purpose of this study is to generate a theory to explain Thai EFL student teachers’ lesson planning by adopting the grounded theory. The research questions include 1) How do the Thai EFL student teachers design their lesson plans? 2) How do the student teachers implement the lesson plans? and 3) What action do the student teachers take after implementing the lesson plans? The research instruments are semi-structured interviews as well as observations of 22 student teachers majoring in Teaching English. The data is analyzed by means of coding to identify emerging categories and generate a substantive theory. A constant comparative analysis of the data generates a grounded theory of EFL student teachers’ lesson planning, illustrating cyclical processes of four stages. The first stage is pre-planning, where personnel and institutions have an influence by giving information necessary for planning. The second stage is planning, showing both linear and non-linear processes. The third stage is implementing plans, observed by school and university supervisors. Student teachers agree, partly disagree or entirely disagree with feedback and use or do not use the feedback to improve subsequent plans. Finally, the last stage is reflecting/evaluating, showing modes of communication and a reflective process for both problems and success.
8. Jeter G., Baber J., Heddy B., Wilson S., Williams L., Atkinson L., Dean S., & Garn G. (2019). Students at the Center: Insights and Implications of Authentic, 5E Instruction in High School English Language Arts. Frontiers in Education. 4 (91).
Abstract: This paper explores the 5E model of lesson design (engage, explore, explain, extend, evaluate) in English Language Arts (ELA) classrooms in consideration of an authentic teaching and learning framework. This quasi-experimental pre and post-intervention study centers on student motivation and academic emotions regarding direct instruction in comparison to an authentic, 5E lesson. When comparing pre and post conditions across two types of instructional methods (direct instruction and authentic, 5E lessons), findings suggest students are less interested and more bored when participating in direct instruction experiences. Moreover, academic pressure increased in the authentic group while classroom mastery decreased.
9. Jones, Frank W. III, "Perceptual Lesson Planning in Middle School Social Studies: An application of Deweyian aesthetics." Dissertation, Georgia State University, 2017.
Abstract: Lesson planning is an essential component of high quality teaching. Rather than being regarded as a positive experience, all too often, teachers view the planning process as tedious and a drain on their time (Trimble, 2015). Using a conceptual model forged from observing the interactions of teachers and artists, this study allowed for an exploration of teachers’ individual and collaborative engagement. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how the aesthetic planning process impacted the teachers’ beliefs about collaborative planning.
This qualitative case study of middle school social studies teachers examined their application of Deweyian aesthetics within a collaborative lesson planning setting. The findings demonstrate that the use of perceptual planning enhanced the value and efficiency of the process. Moreover, the aesthetic model transformed collaborative planning into a meaningful and enjoyable experience.
10. Kauper, K. & Jacobs, M. M. (2019). The case for slow curriculum: creative subversion and the curriculum mind: Resistive theories, practices, and actions. In C. Mullen (Ed.), Creativity under duress in education?
Abstract: This chapter examines the constructs of time as it pertains to creativity in teacher education. In particular, we propose the practice of “slow curriculum” as a means to support the conditions for creative expression by students and teachers. Like the slow food movement, a slow curriculum contests an industrial system that privileges efficiency and markets over holistic alternatives that encourage creativity and well-being. As classroom teachers feel the pressure of market-based dictums, the tendency to privilege outcomes over processes limit opportunities for creative expression for teachers and students. The authors present three approaches for implementing slow curriculum and offer recommendations for curriculum planning that encourages creative works in the classroom: the adoption of curriculum mindedness, creative subversion, and improvisational teaching. Each of these strategies is presented as working in tandem to support a slow curriculum movement for preservice and practicing teachers.
11. Keller, C. K. (2018). Advantages, disadvantages, and experiences of one-to-one technology in the classroom (Order No. 10932032). Available From ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global: Social Sciences; Publicly Available Content Database. (2110756577).
Abstract: Technology in the classroom is becoming an additional part of the school day in many classrooms amongst the United States. 21st century skills surround us through schools, future careers, and communication. The goal of this study is to determine the advantages and disadvantages of one-to-one technology in the classroom. In addition, the experiences students go through while using a device is important. The findings of this study were based on one sixth grade classroom in a suburban community through observations, surveys, and interviews.
12. Koni, I. (2017). The perception of issues related to instructional planning among novice and experienced teachers (Doctoral dissertation).
Abstract: Instructional planning is an essential component of teaching. When appropriately implemented it makes teaching more effective and, thus, promotes student learning. Therefore, acquisition of instructional planning skills should be the first priority in teacher education programmes. However, due to a very intuitive and experience-dependent character of planning, this field of study has been challenging for researchers. In addition, lack of reliable knowledge in this field, in its turn, undermines systematic preparation of the novice teachers for coping with issues of instructional planning. This dissertation is aimed at finding ways for a more knowledgeable and systematic promoting instructional planning skills among student by discovering differences in the way novice and experienced teachers think in relation to instructional planning, and drawing conclusions from the findings. To this end, a model how teachers potentially think about instructional planning was created by learning former research in the field. On the basis of this model, a questionnaire for uncovering differences in teachers’ thinking about instructional planning was developed. The inquiry of teachers revealed that there are differences in the novice and experienced teachers thinking about issues of instructional planning. The results of the study revealed that novice teachers appreciated more achieving immediate, rather formal objectives stated in the curricula and to teach the material on the topic than experienced teachers did. In addition, novice teachers perceived important to please the principal. Experienced teacher, on the other hand, perceived more harming unexpected events that may interfere with planned learning activities and might affect the achievement of stated objectives. In conclusion, this study corroborated that there are differences in how novice and experienced teachers think related to issues of instructional planning. In order to support novices’ instructional planning skills, teacher educations studies should incorporate assignments and activities that help to perceive the essence of instructional planning and its context dependency. Furthermore, student teachers should have more opportunities for joint planning with experienced teachers to uncover their tacit knowledge and, thus, to expand novices’ knowledge base about instructional planning
13. Koni, I. & Krull, E. (2018). Differences in novice and experienced teachers’ perceptions of planning activities in terms of primary instructional tasks. Teacher Development, 22(4), 464–480.
Abstract: This study was aimed at investigating differences between novice and experienced teachers’ perceptions of planning activities for developing teacher education students’ professional skills by focusing on promoting of identified ill-developed skills. The teachers’ thinking about instructional planning was conceived as teachers’ decision-making for implementing primary teaching tasks in the planning, delivery, and reflective phases of instruction. This model served as a basis (or framework) for the identification of potential variables of planning skills and developing of items for a teachers’ questionnaire. Fifty-eight experienced and 55 novice teachers from Estonian schools of general education were surveyed. It was revealed that novice teachers did not apprehend events that may undermine reaching long-term instructional objectives and they focused more on the achievement of immediate objectives and the teaching of obligatory content in comparison with experienced teachers.
14. Maxfield, R. L. (2017). Re-envisioning a classic english classroom: Theatrical blocking as a pedagogical tool (Order No. 10277600). Available From ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global: Literature & Language; ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global: Social Sciences; Publicly Available Content Database. (1942412385).
Abstract: How does a teacher create experiences to engage students with a theatrical text? The researcher hypothesized that there is a disconnect between the theater world and how English teachers are trained to teach theater such as Arthur Miller's "The Crucible". Traditionally, English teachers utilize a passive learning method of script read-through. This may not be conducive to Dewey's (1938) rationale that education and experience are united and may contribute to a student's lack of engagement. This qualitative case study aimed to examine how aesthetic and kinesthetic qualities might help students experience a theatrical text in meaningful ways. In a Midwestern school district, ten students were asked to do a traditional read-through of Act One of "The Crucible" and then do theatrical blocking to work with Act Two. In this study, a balance was found for teaching a theatrical play with both literary and dramatic classroom lessons.
15. Meng, L., & Uhrmacher, P. B. (2014). Chan teaching and learning: An aesthetic analysis of its educational import. Asia Pacific Education Review, 15(2), 199-209.
Abstract: This study examines the sudden enlightenment sect of Chan (or Zen in Japanese terms) in order to understand various aspects of teaching and learning in the Buddhist tradition in China. To unravel Chan's educational import, we analyze its aesthetic features through a Western lens in order to highlight significant aspects of the teaching/learning process. Using connections, risk taking, imagination, sensory experience, perceptivity, and active engagement, a six-theme framework in the Western aesthetic education literature, we summarize five characteristics of Chan teaching and learning that specifically facilitates learners to be actively engaged and connected in their learning and modestly facilitates the learner's sensory experience and imagination. We argue that Chan's teaching and learning do not enable learners to take risks or to become overly perceptive. These aesthetic features might make Chinese learners more able learners in a lecture-directed learning environment that is usually associated with ineffective learning in Western teaching and learning discourse. Lack of risk taking in Chan tradition might relate to the lack of creative thinking in China, which still needs more in-depth exploration.
16. Mitton-Kükner, J., & Murray Orr, A. (2018). A multi-year study of pre-service teachers' literacy practices in the content areas: Time epistemologies and indicators of stasis and growth. Pedagogies: An International Journal, 13(1), 19-35.
Abstract: This three-year study focuses on 42 pre-service teachers' perspectives on integrating literacy into their content area teaching. Pre-service teachers described time as an influential factor shaping their teaching practices, and, we found, that perceptions of time influenced pre-service teachers' reported ability and willingness to plan for and enact the implementation of literacy strategies as part of content area lessons. While we noted a number of factors related to time, we were particularly drawn to three time-related factors that signified for pre-service teacher participants' active roles and agency in how they were enacted in the classroom. Identifying temporal concerns about curriculum, learner response to literacy practices, and use of classroom time to scaffold learning allowed us to specify aspects of participants' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) development as well as facets of limited PCK growth. Using time as a theoretical lens to view pre-service teachers' accounts of literacy practices, we suggest, provides insights into their PCK, specifically indicators of stasis and growth, and understanding about pre-service teacher resistance or acceptance to the infusion of literacy into content area teaching.
17. Moonsri, A., & Pattanajack, A. (2013). Lesson Planning in Primary School Using Lesson Study and Open Approach. Psychology, 4 (12).
Abstract: Lesson plans are generally written in a way that helps teachers to layout and run classroom activities. Many researchers have examined how teachers go about planning. This clearly shows that instructional plans play a central role in teaching and creating effective learning environments (Clark & Dunn, 1991; Reiser & Dick, 1996; Shauelson, 1983 cited in Koszalka et al., 1999). In context of school using lesson study and open approach followed conception of Inprasitha (2010), the importance of lesson study proc- esses is collaborative lesson planning. After that the teachers who participate in lesson study group use these lesson plans in the classroom, observe and collect students’ thought and learning processes. And in planning the lessons use problems that students encounter in everyday life, so as to stimulate students to work to achieve the objective (Fernandez & Yoshida, 2004). The data were collected by video and audio recording while the target group were planning and teaching the lessons in lesson study process, then were transcribed to the protocol and analyzed by using theoretical framework of Stigler and Hiebert (1999). The research revealed that the target group discussed during the lesson planning process detailing about exact words, problem situations, materials, the anticipated solutions, students’ thoughts and re- sponses, time used in each part of the lesson, and how to summarize the lesson. In the lesson planning, the exact words used in the problem situations were mostly mentioned. Moreover, in lesson planning, the is- sue of details of introduction design was discussed a lot. There were some issues which were not dis- cussed during the teachers-included designing of the lesson plan. However, they were discussed while the teacher was using the lesson plan in class during instructional management.
18. Shaw, R. D. (2014). How critical is critical thinking?. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications.
Abstract: Recent educational discourse is full of references to the value of critical thinking as a 21st-century skill. In music education, critical thinking has been discussed in relation to problem solving and music listening, and some researchers suggest that training in critical thinking can improve students’ responses to music. But what exactly is meant by “critical thinking”? This article explores how critical thinking, when thought of as an outgrowth of Critical Theory and pedagogy concepts, may look very different than our popular definitions of the concept. This reframing of critical thinking requires that students take an active role in questioning and challenging music, education, and the ways in which they may take critical action to pursue change. Examples of critical thinking questions, activities, and curricula are offered, and resources are included for further reading.
19. Shaw, R. D. (2017). I can hardly wait to see what I am going to do today: Lesson planning perspectives of experienced band teachers. Contributions to Music Education, 42, 129-151.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the lesson planning practices of three experienced band teachers at the high school level. For the purposes of this study, experienced teachers were those with 25 or more years of teaching experience. Research questions were: (a) how do experienced high school band teachers plan for teaching, and (b) how do they draw meaning from the lesson planning process? The study employed a comparative case study design to provide rich, detailed description of both planning processes and the meaning attached. Data sources consisted of lesson planning artifacts, a focus group interview, and individual interviews. Findings suggested that participants' planning was multi-layered, nested, linked to reflection, and flexible. Participants regarded lesson planning as important but rejected prescribed lesson plan formats. Recommendations for future research and implications for practice are discussed.
20. Smith, A. L. (2016). Captivating college classrooms: Applications of aesthetic themes for higher education (Order No. 10112491). Available From Education Database. (1800546420).
Abstract: This study investigates the intentions and practices of aesthetically-minded college educators and their use of aesthetic themes (CRISPA) in the classroom. These topics were explored through interviewing and observing participants under the qualitative framework of educational connoisseurship and criticism. Three research questions guided this study: (a) What are the intentions of aesthetically-minded educators who purposefully utilize CRISPA in higher education? (b) How do the aesthetic themes (CRISPA) operationalize in college classrooms? And (c) what is the significance of the intentions and practices of aesthetically-minded educators for higher education and for education in general? The findings show that the intentions of aesthetically-minded educators might be described as the wow experience, forms of energy, transformational catalysts, and innovative practices in teacher education. Operationalizing CRISPA in the classroom resulted in additional best practices for college curriculum and instruction, including recall and introspection, interpretation, synthesis, transposition, and connoisseurship. The outcomes of this study provide evidence that CRISPA holds valuable implications for college students, the college curriculum and integrative models of higher education.
21. Spencer, J. W. (2019). The explicit integration of technology during lesson planning (Order No. 27546440). Available From ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global: Literature & Language; ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global: Social Sciences; Publicly Available Content Database. (2388704507).
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore the following central research question: What supports do teachers need to develop a multimodal learning environment that integrates multiple technologies into literacy instruction? The study utilized two design phases to examine in increasing depth how to support teachers in the lesson planning process to increase multiliteracy practices, particularly their integration of technologies for classroom instruction. This study provides further understanding of what can influence teachers in their use of multiple forms and combinations of technology for planning, instruction and student deliverables in a Multimodal Literacy Environment. The data indicate that the participants understand how they want to use technology during literacy instruction and that they need additional training. One of the major themes in the findings was that teachers indicated that the choices provided in both phases of the lesson plan framework made them think more deeply about how they were planning. The findings show there was a definite disconnect between the written lesson plans the teacher submitted and how the lessons were conducted in the classroom. Teachers in the study, as with teachers in similar research, did much more mental planning than actually documenting their lesson plans. Teachers’ perceptions did evolve regarding how to use technology to teach English language arts, but it cannot be conclusively said that their perception changed about literacy. Overall, the research findings do support the assertion that teachers’ Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge can be influenced by the type of lesson plan that they utilize to build their lesson.
22. Uribe-Zarain, X., Liang, J., Sottile, J., Watson, G. (2020) Differences in Perceived Issues in Teacher Preparation Between First- Year Teachers and Their Principals. Mid-Western Educational Researcher, 31 (4).
Abstract: The perspectives of both teachers and principals are valuable in understanding to what extent recent graduates from formal educator preparation programs are ready to take on teaching roles and tasks as a teacher. The understanding gained may contribute to bettering initiatives targeted on teacher retention, particularly in those critical beginning years of practice. This study examined the perceived effectiveness of first-year teachers’ preparation from the perspectives of the teachers and the principals, utilizing three-year survey data of 644 first-year teachers who graduated from a higher education institution and 497 hosting principals in a Midwest state. The findings note that the first-year teachers and principals, in general, had similar views regarding the preparation of the teachers. Significant differences were found related to certain competency domains as identified in the state’s teaching standards. Also discussed in the article are longitudinal trends and recommendations for addressing noted challenges faced by first-year teachers.